About this piece:
- Medium: Terracotta Clay
- Size: 5" x 8" x 5"
- Edition size: Original piece, One-of-a-kind.
- Artist: Samwel Osumba.
- Availability: One set.
- Authenticity: Cerificate with seal and signature is provided.
Religion: Traditional Monotheism
Population: 142,300 (including 19,046 Chamus)
Status: 9% Christian, 1% Evangelical
Location: The Samburu people live slightly south of Lake Turkana in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. They have traditionally herded cattle, goats and sheep in and an arid region with sparse vegetation. A nomadic life-style is essential for their survival since attempts to settle down in permanent locations have reduced their self-sufficiency and ability to maintain their traditional values and practices.
History: The Samburu developed from one of the later Nilotic migrations from the Sudan, as part of the Plains Nilotic movement. The broader grouping of the Maa-speaking people continued moving south, possibly under the pressure of the Borana expansion into their plains. Maa-speaking peoples have lived and fought from Mt. Elgon to Malindi and down the Rift Valley into Tanzania.
The Samburu are in an early settlement area of the Maa group. Those who moved on south, however (called Maasai), have retained a more purely nomadic lifestyle until recently when they have also begun farming. The expanding Turkana ran into the Samburu around 1700 when they began expanding north and east.
Identity: Natural disasters and insensitive government mandates have plagued the Samburu. Droughts reduce the amount of available pasture and the number of cattle is reduced through natural, though at times abnormal, selection with resulting reduction of the wealth, status and stature of family groups.
If individuals are forced to sell their cattle or lose them through natural causes, they lose their means of self-sufficiency. They are then reduced to welfare help provided by national and religious organizations. A few development projects have provided new means of establishing settlements based on agriculture as well as hunting and gathering.
This implies a sedentary agricultural life-style as well as a loss of status among the Samburu, who have traditionally held their nomadic life-style to be superior. Thus economics and survival are directly affecting the Samburu. Changes in lifestyle have come as Samburu have traveled to other parts of Kenya. Samburu, like Maasai and Turkana, work in the cities as guards.
The Chamus (Njemps) people speak the Samburu language and are often counted as Samburu people. They are reported to be 12% Christian, while the Samburu are considered as 8-9% Christian. Evangelical estimates are lower, about 3% Christian for Samburu and 2.2% Christian for Chamus. The Samburu have traditionally been allies of the Rendille, who are about 5% Christian and are related to the Somali.
Language: The language of the Samburu people is also called Samburu. It is a Maa language very close to the Maasai dialects. Linguists have debated the distinction between the Samburu and Maasai languages for decades.
In normal conversation one who speaks one of these languages can understand the other language 95 percent of the time. But a joint Bible translation was found to be ineffective to cover both groups. Preferred word usage and some grammatical difficulties required a separate translation for Samburu and Maasai.
The Samburu tongue is also related to Turkana and Karamojong, and more distantly to Pokot and the Kalenjin languages.
The Chamus (Njemps) people speak the Samburu language and are often counted as Samburu people. They are reported to be 12% Christian, while the Samburu are considered as 8-9% Christian. The Ariaal group of Rendille have been greatly affected by the Samburu and now speak the Samburu language. The Ariaal number 102,000, making a total of 249,300 mother-tongue speakers of the Samburu language.
Swahili is used extensively, particularly among younger people. Swahili is the language of education and English is taught in schools. There is still a low level of literacy and education, however, among the Samburu.
Political Situation: The Samburu have been in a somewhat defensive position with surrounding peoples moving around them. They have had clashes with some of the migrating or nomadic peoples. They have maintained a military and cultural alliance with the Rendille, largely in response to pressures from the expanding Oromo (Borana) since the 16th century. The Ariaal Rendille have even adopted the Samburu language. They do not have such an aggressive military character as the Maasai proper.
They were associated with the Laikipiak (Oloikop) Maasai, also called Kwavi, who followed a lifestyle with light agriculture. They have added camels to their culture, further differentiating them from the Maasai. In recent decades, they have had mostly peaceful relations with their neighbors, who include Maasai, Somali, Borana, Turkana and Gabbra as well as Rendille.
The Samburu got separated from the other Maa speakers due to the migration of Maasai farther south and of other ethnic various groups around them. The Samburu have been somewhat outside the stream of national politics also. They have had less development than some others in Kenya.
Change is beginning to occur as group ranching schemes have developed and education has become available. Many Samburu warriors enlisted in the British forces during World War II. Likewise Samburu serve in the Kenya armed forces and police.
Customs: Generally between five and ten families set up encampments for five weeks and then move on to new pastures. Adult men care for the grazing cattle which are the major source of livelihood. Women are in charge of maintaining the portable huts, milking cows, obtaining water and gathering firewood. Their houses are of plastered mud or hides and grass mats stretched over a frame of poles. A fence of thorns surrounds each family's cattle yard and huts.
Marriage is a unique series of elaborate ritual. Great importance is given to the preparation of gifts by the bridegroom (two goatskins, two copper earrings, a container for milk, a sheep) and of gifts for the ceremony. The marriage is concluded when a bull enters a hut guarded by the bride's mother, and is killed.
Fertility is a very high value for the Samburu. A childless woman will be ridiculed, even by children. Samburu boys may throw cow dung against the hut of a woman thought to be sterile. A fertility ritual involves placing a mud figure in front of the woman's house. One week later, a feast will be given in which the husband invites neighbors to eat a slaughtered bull with him. As a little fat is spread over the woman's belly, they will say: "May God give you a child!"
Their society has for long been so organized around cattle and warfare (for defense and for raiding others) that they find it hard to change to a more limited lifestyle. The purported benefits of modern life are often undesirable to the Samburu. They remain much more traditional in life and attitude than their Maasai cousins.
Duties of boys and girls are clearly delineated. Boys herd cattle and goats and learn to hunt, defending the flocks. Girls fetch water and wood and cook. Both boys and girls go through an initiation into adulthood, which involves training in adult responsibilities and circumcision for boys and clitoridectomy for girls.
Initiation is done in age grades of about five years, with the new "class" of boys becoming warriors, or morans. (il-murran). The moran status involves two stages, junior and senior. After serving five years as junior morans, the group go through a naming ceremony, becoming senior morans for six years. After these eleven years, the senior moran are free to marry and join the married men (junior elders).
Samburu are very independent and egalitarian. Community decisions are normally made by men (senior elders or both senior and junior elders but not morani), often under a tree designated as a "council" meeting site. Women may sit in an outer circle and usually will not speak directly in the open council, but may convey a comment or concern through a male relative. However, women may have their own "council" discussions and then carry the results of such discussions to men for consideration in the men's council.
The Samburu love to sing and dance, but traditionally used no instruments, even drums. They have dances for various occasions of life. The men dance jumping, and high jumping from a standing position is a great sport. Most dances involve the men and women dancing in their separate circles with particular moves for each sex, but coordinating the movements of the two groups.
Religion: The Samburu recognize Islam as the religion of the enemy Boran and Somali. Thus virtually no Samburu have become Muslims. Their own traditional religion is based on acknowledgment of the Creator God, whom they call Nkai, as do other Maa-speaking peoples. They think of him as living in the mountains around their land, such as Mount Marsabit.
They believe in charms and have traditional ritual for fertility, protection, healing and other needs. But it is common to have prayer directly to Nkai in their public gatherings. Traditional Maasai prayer patterns are used by Samburu and Maasai Christians in prayer and worship. They also use the term nkai for various spirits related to trees, rocks and springs, and for the spirit of a person. They believe in a evil spirit called milika.
Samburu religious beliefs are based on prayers to Nkai (God), and sacrifices. Nkai is thought to dwell in beautiful mountains, large trees, caverns, and water springs. The greatest hope of an old man approaching death is the honor of being buried with his face toward a majestic mountain, the seat of Nkai. The Samburu are devout in their belief in God. But they believe he is distant from their everyday activities. Diviners (laibon, pl. laibonok) predict the future and cast spells to affect the future.
Christianity: Increasing numbers have become Christians. New missionary teams sent out as itinerant evangelists have been effective in reaching nomadic groups by becoming nomadic themselves. Other Samburu become Christians as a result of relief efforts provided by Christians groups who meet the needs of those who have become sedentary.
Significant changes in social, cultural and economic traditions have created many opportunities for Christians to explain the gospel. Thirteen denominations are ministering to Samburu in 130 distinct "congregations." The elders and leaders have been resistant to change, so most Christians are women or young men and boys.
Strategies are needed to reach the men, who spend their time with cattle and do not meet with women and children. Many medical facilities, development projects and educational institutions are operated by Christians, so Christians have regular contact with Samburu persons.
Attempts to reach the Samburu are well under way. Individuals ministering among them are beginning to see rewards for their sacrificial efforts and signposts directing them toward new avenues of effective outreach. There has been an open interest, but Samburu are a questioning, observing people and consider claims of the gospel long and carefully.
There has been no great gospel breakthrough yet. But missionaries may be welcomed into discussion groups with elders to share stories of the Bible, Jesus and Christian faith. Conservative estimates indicate about 3% are evangelical believers (lower at 2.2% for the Chamus group).
The Roman Catholic church has a great presence in Mararal District, center of the Samburu. But people seem to know little about Christian faith. Several evangelical ministries are now established in the Samburu area.
There is an open access to the people, but because of the traditional worldview, it takes time for a Samburu to really understand the gospel in a really personal way. Genesis is in print in the Samburu language, and Bible stories are given attention. Other scripture portions are underway. Oral scripture readings, music or teachings in the Maasai language are often acceptable to Samburu audiences.
SAMBURU PROFILE QUESTIONNAIRE
1. HAVE THEY HEARD THE GOSPEL?
Ratio of pastors/evangelists to population:
? pastor/evangelist for every ??? persons
total pastor/evangelists - ?
Ratio of missionaries to population:
? missionary for every ?? persons
total missionaries - ??
Who is Jesus Christ to them?
9% Believe Jesus is the Son of God and name themselves Christian.
(12% for Chamus)
6% Believe he is the Son of God and see him as their savior
?% Believe Jesus is a prophet, teacher, a good man, but not God's Son
?% Have not heard who Jesus really is
2. HAVE THEY RESPONDED TO THE GOSPEL? Somewhat
3. DO THEY HAVE A CHURCH? Yes
4. DO THEY HAVE THE BIBLE TRANSLATED INTO THEIR MOTHER TONGUE?
Genesis and other portions.
5. ANY HINDRANCES TO USE OF THE SCRIPTURE? Literacy Rate: ?%
6. WHAT OTHER FORMS OF GOSPEL PRESENTATIONS ARE AVAILABLE
Audio-Visual: Story series in picture booklet and audio tape.
Radio: Films/Video: Jesus in Maasai is usable.
Maasai audiovisuals may be somewhat useful in oral discussion formats.
7. ARE THEY RECEPTIVE TO CHANGE AND CHRISTIANITY?
Somewhat. Growing more open.
8. IS OUTSIDE (CROSS-CULTURAL) ASSISTANCE REQUIRED FROM MISSIONARIES?
Yes. Training and Bible teaching are needed. Story methods and discussion are most appropriate.
Culturally relevant evangelism is being initiated by Maasai Christians.
Percent Christian: 82.1%
Percent Evangelical: 34%
Population (year): 30,844,000 (1995)
Major Religion: Christianity
Openness to Missionaries: Open
SAMBURU PEOPLE BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE
Total People: 142,300 (1996)
Location: Samburu District, and south and east shores of Lake Baringo, Baringo District, Rift valley province.
Ecosystem type: Desert to interfluvial
LANGUAGE /LINGUISTICS/LITERACY INFORMATION
(From Ethnologue, 13th Edition)
Primary Language: Samburu
Ethnologue Code: SAQ
Alternate Names: Sambur, Sampur, Burkeneji, Loikop, E Lokor, Nkutuk
Dialects: CHAMUS (ILCAMUS, NJEMPS)
Attitude towards mother tongue: Prestigious
Second Languages: Swahili
Linguistically related: Maa (Maasai)
Neighbor Languages: Kikuyu, Borana, Turkana
Publications in MT:
Subsistence type: Pastoral and fishers
Occupations: Herding, farming, fishing, metal working
Products/crafts: Grass baskets, papyrus mats
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT STATUS
Health Care Quality: Poor
Balanced Diet: Fair
Water Quality: Poor
Water: Limited. Christian and government water projects have been implemented in recent years
Energy/Fuel: Wood, dung
Clothing: Wrap around blankets, women wear much beadwork around the neck, similar to Maasai patterns. Modern clothes worn more commonly now.
Child Mortality Rate:
Life Expectancy Rate:
Leading Cause of Death:
Family Structures: Women's houses built around husband's, children live in mother's house until initiation
Neighbor Relations: Fierce, warlike, becoming friendly
Authority/Rule:Council of elders, communal decisions, input from all adults
Social Habits/Groupings: Activities follow initiation age grades, but there is quite free interaction between all members of the society.
Cultural Change Pace: Slow
Acculturation to Nat'l Society: Distant
Self Image: Threatened
Art Forms: Dance, Wire and Beadwork jewelry
Local Language Broadcasting: One hour daily in Maasai--should be understandable
Attitude to Outsiders: Somewhat receptive
Attitude to Changes: Somewhat receptive
Comments: Growing more open. They have a warm hospitality but are wary of strangers.
Teacher to Pupil Ratio:
Language of Instructions for Early Primary School:
Language of Textbooks for Early Primary School:
Labor/Tasks of Youth:
Religion Adherents Active
1. Traditional ?
2. Christian ?
3. Muslim ?
Primary Religion: Traditional
STATUS OF CHRISTIANITY
Strategy Status: Unreached
Reached Status: Engaged
Total Believers: Uncertain
Christian Literacy Centers:
HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY IN GROUP
Year Began: 1930
By whom: SIM
Available Scripture: No Scripture.
Available Form: Definite translation needed
Use of Translation: Some use the Maasai New testament, but with difficulty. The joint Maasai/Samburu translation was not really functional for the Samburu.
Hindrances to Scripture Use and Distribution: Low literacy. Oral forms will be best.
Comments: Maasai-Samburu translation was found to be inadequate. Partly due to low level of literacy, Samburu could not adapt to the compromise version of the language. The translation was revised for Maasai only. Literate believers can use the Maasai Bible.
Recordings: Gospel Recordings SAMBURU #998 Kenya
Films/Video: Maasai "Jesus" film
Audio/Visual: Story series in picture booklet and audio tape.
MISSION/CHURCHES WORKING AMONG
|Organization||Type of Ministry|
|1. Africa Inland Mission||evangelism/church planting|
|2. Bible Churchmen's Missionary Society|
|3. Church of the Province of Kenya||evangelism/church planting|
|4. Consolata Catholic Mission|
|5. Church Army of Kenya|
|6. Independent Faith Mission||evangelism/church planting|
|7. Pentecostal||evangelism/church planting|
|8. Roman Catholic Church||evangelism|
|9. Baptist Convention of Kenya||evangelism, literacy, community
Total Expatriate Missionaries:
Total National Missionaries:
Total Local Workers:
Attitude to Christianity: Receptive to Resistant
Attitude to Religious Change: Slow, uncertain
Resistance/Receptivity: Receptive but suspicious
Religious Analogies/Bridges: Creator God
Spiritual Climate and Openness:
Amin, Mohamed. "Samburu," Portraits of Africa. London: Harvill Press, 1983.
Global Prayer Digest. Pasadena, California: Frontier Fellowship, 1982.
Sharman, Margaret. Kenya's People: People of the Plains. Evans Brothers Limited, 1979.
Maasai. Nairobi: Consolata Fathers. No Date.
Grimes, Barbara. Ethnologue (Electronic). Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1995.
Orville Boyd Jenkins
Last updated 09 August 2001
Copyright © 1997, 2001 Orville Boyd Jenkins
Permission granted for free download and transmission for personal or educational use. Other rights reserved.
Reference source: www.strategyleader.org